I recently decided to try the Caddy webserver project’s implementation of a webserver written in Golang. It had many interesting things going for it, including automagic certificate renewal via ACME and Let’s Encrypt; “plugins” written in a sane language; dramatically simplified configuration; and perhaps in one of the most boastful statements I’ve seen of any software recently, it claims to be “Production-Ready” (features page, right hand side). Given that it took me the better part of a day to get a functional Caddy role for Ansible, I really question this claim.

So that’s what this article is about. I’m putting down here what I think production grade software should be, and some of the problems with what software is out there.

What is Production?

To answer the original question, we have to first look into what is production. In general agreement of operations staff I know, production is the environment of a software system that is either directly or transitively involved in serving end-users. These end-users can be internal or external to an organization, but the defining characteristic that makes someone an end user is that they can be unhappy about the status of a system and their unhappiness directly translates into a need to act for some team responsible for the system. This is in contrast to dev or QA environments where unhappiness about the system state does not demand immediate action.

Put more simply and more directly: if it is important enough to wake some one up and put a keyboard in front of them, it’s part of production.

With a reasonable definition of what production is, lets now look at what production grade means.

What is Production Grade?

Like lumber, meat, and equipment, it’s not unreasonable to say that software comes in various grades. In many cases these terms are legally protected. For example the United States Department of Agriculture governs the use of specific terms for grades of meat. Similarly the Western Wood Products Association provides grading criteria for lumber. It is interesting then that no such set of standards exists for software. Anyone can claim at any time that any software is production grade, or is of sufficient quality to wake someone up at night.

It’s at this point that I’m going to clearly state that for the purposes of this article, I’m glossing over the complexity of software fitness for a particular purpose, such as life or safety critical systems. These systems usually require the review and certification of a Professional Engineer, whose title and license are part of a regulated profession in most parts of the world. I am not a Professional Engineer, and so I can’t speak to the kinds of things that one would look for in certifying software. I can only speak to what I look for in softare systems that I allow to wake me up at night.

Like most things, this is a sliding scale. Let’s start at the huge end and work our way down.

Insane Scale

During my tenure at Google, I had a very specific definition of something being in production since I was an SRE. This definition boiled down to “can it page me?” Since I was part of a Tier 1 rotation, by definition we would only be on call for things that were in production, and by definition they should have been production grade (whether or not this was true is a debate for another time).

In this environment, I personally held the definition that production grade wasn’t something I could write down. It was something I knew when I saw it, and was greater than the sum of its parts. Those familiar with US Supreme Court decisions might find this equivalently infuriating to Justice Potter Stewart’s test for obscenity. When a developer wanted me to OK a feature to push to the many many tasks we had running around the world I had a checklist for certain, but I also had to ask myself what my gut feeling was on the change. Was it safe? Would it cause downtime? How might this affect disaster response if we needed to shut off the new widget? All of these are important questions to ask when looking for “Production Grade” at insane scales.

Some of the biggest things I looked for had to do with startup and shutdown. In anything I was expected to be responsible for I really wanted to see that the boundary conditions were well thought out. This includes things like “what happens if the config file isn’t available when the binary starts?” Well written software would either wait in an unhealthy state for the config, or would bail out early with a failure message. Mass task death would really quickly make it obvious that something was wrong, as would an entire pool sitting in unhealthy state.

Another significant point I always looked for had to do with upgrades. The question to always ask here is what happens at the balance point when 50% of the fleet is on version N and 50% is on N+1. In the best case nothing happens, in the worst case you can get persisted data corruption.

These are all very important things to look at in defining the problem at an insane scale, but few if any places run software the way Google does, and so few if any places will run into or ask these same questions.

Moderate Scale

For me moderate scale is the size of a medium sized company. While at The University of Texas at Dallas, I was responsible for a computer network serving roughly 1400 people on a daily basis in both local computer lab format, and in remote terminal services format.

In this environment, my team built a lot of our own operations software, but the software we ran to provide services was almost all off the shelf. We generally looked for a few specific features when selecting software.

First and foremost it had to be maintained. This seems obvious, but I’ve seen a lot of places get into terribly deep trouble over the years by hinging some critical process on legacy infrastructure that couldn’t be kept up. As a direct extension of this, it’s really important that there’s a path between versions. Breaking changes at major releases are all good and well, but in contrast to too few releases if there’s a major release every few months, that’s a good sign that the project isn’t stable and therefore isn’t ready to be run in production yet.

Another key point that I’m looking for at this scale is how to get redundancy. I need some way to stand up multiple copies of a service. First I need to be able to upgrade them one at a time, and second I need to be able to scale horizontally as the load exceeds what a single task can serve.

I also look at software at this scale to be debuggable. For me this is one thing that Caddy didn’t have. I lost several hours trying to figure out what was wrong as the server would just hang on startup. I eventually was able to isolate the fault to a single domain for a single virtualhost. Several more hours of debugging isolated this to a lock that had been set in Caddy’s state directory which needed to be manually cleared. This could have been reduced to a 10 minute troubleshooting session if only Caddy had printed out that there was a lock being held during startup. Instead, I had fumble my way through the startup process until I realized it had a lock.

At the small scale

The small scale for me is things like Void Linux. I look for software that has very specific qualities before I allow it to run in production for Void. First and foremost, I need the software to be basically single-instance fire and forget. I need to be able to launch a task, have it serve the world and only bug me if the world is burning down around it. Anything less than this and I expect that the software will keep going. This is in contrast to the way that software can work at much larger scales where a single task dying for no readily explained reason is ignored.

For software running on Void, I also look for a minimal height dependency tree. This is something that is somewhat specific to the software needed to support a distribution, but the practical reason is easy to understand. I need the shortest list of software needed to run the infrastructure that has to un-break all the rest of the software. This is incidentally why the majority of Void’s infrastructure software is written in Golang, as it has minimal assumptions about how much of the rest of the world around it is functional.


Choosing software that runs on my home network is perhaps the most picky I can be.

In many cases, this is software running without redundancy on non-redundant hardware. Add to this that its running in what most people would consider to be a “privileged” environment and it’s easy to understand why I would be so picky.

For example, my home network is powered by OpenBSD. I use OpenBSD here because it has a history of being incredibly robust, very well built and documented, and it has a thriving community around it for if I ever do manage to find a real bug in it. The only bits of my home router that are even remotely specialized are a pair of well supported network cards, and an IDE disk on module with industrial flash to keep the system quieter and lower power draw than a proper spinning disk would be.

Another thing I’m looking for at this scale is that the software works without too much input. Running OpenLDAP at a medium scale and above justifies its upkeep requirement by the features it provies, but running it in smaller environments doesn’t make sense because of the mental complexity that it takes to operate. At the subminiature scale of my home network, I’m truly looking for the system to be as low maintenence as possible.

To the Other Side

“But wait!” I hear you say to your monitor, “I write software, not run other people’s software like you! How do I know that what I’ve written is ready to hand off to an operations team to deploy it and run it!?”

This is a question to which I have no answer.

For over a year now, I’ve been working on a project called NetAuth. Right now it satisfies all the requirements I have for running in the small to medium production system, but I’m still uncomfortable deploying it in prod. Partially because it hasn’t satisfied the many-eyes component that makes open source security softare good, but partially because I’m just not confident enough in my own software to say “yes, this is good, you should run it”.

Personally if you ever find an engineer that has this kind of my-software-is-so-good-it-will-never-break attitude towards softare you should think very carefully about the claims they make, and find out whose head is on a platter if they’re wrong.

Interestingly, I would have no problems running Void Linux in prod. I’ve actually done this in the past, and my reasoning from then stands now. I believe firmly that it is better to run a less battle hardened system that you can fit in entirely in your head rather than an “industry standard” one that you can’t. Anyone who’s had to troubleshoot a large complex system during an outage will know exactly why this is the case.


I think posts like this always need a takeaway that you can think on later.

  • Good logging. You can always throw away log entries later, but getting entries that the software never wrote is impossible.
  • Instrumentation. Like logging, production grade software was designed with the intention that it might need to be looked at, and so it should export metrics that tell you what’s working, or more importantly what isn’t.
  • Good documentation. While I love talking to people on IRC, I prefer if the problems that I might face are well documented, and that the documentation is easy to find. If the documentation is “Read the Source,” that’s not the end of the world; but the source had better be incredibly well commented in that case.

Some of the more ethereal qualities revolve around the development process. I might look into how many open issues there are, when they were last touched, and if it looks like the team is open to criticism towards problems in the software they’ve written (consequently this is one of the many reasons I don’t believe systemd is production grade).

If you’re writing software and want to know if it’s production grade, the easiest way to find out is to go ask an operations team member. Either in your own organization or on the internet. Most of us are more than happy to take a look at software if its interesting, solves some problem, or forwards the goals of the company.

Thanks for reading my wall of text. If you found this interesting, please feel free to email me or reach out on IRC. I idle in #voidlinux on freenode as maldridge.